India has ratified the TRIPS agreement and to give effect to this agreement, The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001 (PPV&FRA) was enacted.
The main aim of this Act is to establish an effective system for the protection of plant varieties and, the rights of the breeders and to encourage the development of new varieties of plants.
Any variety that fulfills the DUS criteria and that is "new" (in the market) is eligible for this kind of protection, and there is no need to demonstrate an inventive step or industrial application, as required under a patent regime.
A DUS examination involves growing the candidate variety together with the most similar varieties of common knowledge, usually for at least two seasons, and recording a comprehensive set of morphological (and in some cases agronomic) descriptors.
Plant varieties present in wilderness cannot be registered, under PPV&FR Authority. However, any traditionally cultivated plant variety which has undergone the process of domestication / improvement through human interventions can be registered and protected subjected to fulfillment of the eligible criteria.